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Latitude: 51.508333
Longitude: -0.125278
Time Zone: America-US/New_York
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May 2025
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Sunday May 4, 2025 (5/4/2025)
Method: May 4th on Gregorian calendar
Length: 1 day
Period: 1 year

The Declaration "On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia"[1] (Latvian: Deklarācija Par Latvijas Republikas neatkarības atjaunošanu) was adopted on 4 May 1990, by the Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR. The Declaration stated that, although Latvia had de facto lost its independence in 1940, when it was annexed by the Soviet Union, the country had de jure remained a sovereign country as the annexation had been unconstitutional and against the will of the people of Latvia. Therefore it resolved that the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940 were illegal, and annulled the declaration on the accession of Latvia to the Soviet Union of 21 July 1940, re-instituted the Constitution of Latvia of 1922, which was thereupon partly suspended, and set a period of transition to de facto independence, which would end upon the first session of Saeima. It also ruled that during the transitional period the Constitution of the Latvian SSR and other laws would remain applicable as long as they did not contradict articles 1, 2, 3, and 6 of the Constitution of Latvia, which were reinforced by the declaration. It was provided that a committee to elaborate a new edition of the Constitution of Latvia should be created. Social, economic, cultural and political rights were granted to citizens and residents of Latvia in accordance with international human rights. The declaration also stated that Latvia would form its relationship with the Soviet Union on the basis of the Latvian–Soviet Peace Treaty of 1920, in which the Soviet Union had recognized the independence of Latvia as inviolable "for all future time".[2] The 4th of May is a national holiday in Latvia.

In its beginning the Declaration establishes several historical facts and on the basis of these facts concludes that the Republic of Latvia de jure is a sovereign country. It observes that the Republic of Latvia proclaimed independence on 18 November 1918, and was internationally recognized in 1920, and that Latvia was admitted to membership in the League of Nations in 1921.[3] The first country to recognize the independence of Latvia de jure was Soviet Russia on 11 August 1920, when the Soviet-Latvian Peace treaty was signed (it is generally considered that the independence of Latvia de jure was internationally recognized on 26 January 1921, when it was recognized by the Allies of World War I).[4][5] The declaration notes that in April 1920 the Latvian nation followed the principle of self-determination by electing a Constitutional Assembly of Latvia, which adopted the Constitution of Latvia on 15 February 1922, in general, equal and direct elections, based on proportional representation.[3]

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